A well designed building can utilise solar energy to produce a hot water system.

Current barriers

In order to scale up renewable energy sources, a systematic approach is needed to identify the key barriers.


Finally, some of the barriers are inherent with the technologies themselves. For instance, solar PV technology may not be durable in extreme environments. Moreover, consumers may not know how to manage and maintain solar cells. Identifying the interactions among the various barriers was also a major focus of this research. A hierarchical model was developed using interpretive structural modeling (ISM) to identify these interactions. Cross-verification was conducted through in country expert consultations.


This article examines some of the barriers currently hindering the development of decentralized solar energy systems (DSES) in Southeast Asia.


One of the most influential factors in determining the success of renewable energy is the ability of the power sector to generate and distribute energy.


Decentralized solutions can help communities become independent from the main national grid, providing them with resilience and security.

Fossil fuel

Fossil fuel power plants, for example, may pass on costs to consumers. Furthermore, coal and natural gas are centralized sources of power.


One of the biggest is the upfront capital investment, as many homeowners must pay all of the money up front.

Solar photovoltaic

Solar photovoltaic power is one of the fastest growing renewable energy sources. It has a variety of applications, from providing electricity to heating water.