Finally, some of the barriers are inherent with the technologies themselves. For instance, solar PV technology may not be durable in extreme environments. Moreover, consumers may not know how to manage and maintain solar cells. Identifying the interactions among the various barriers was also a major focus of this research. A hierarchical model was developed using interpretive structural modeling (ISM) to identify these interactions. Cross-verification was conducted through in country expert consultations.
This article examines some of the barriers currently hindering the development of decentralized solar energy systems (DSES) in Southeast Asia.
The price of PV is driven by a combination of declining capital costs and increasing technical efficiency. Coupled with storage capacity, it can produce cost-competitive electricity. Solar photovoltaic power is becoming more affordable in China. A recent report by the International Energy Agency projects that solar energy could supply a third of the world's energy by 2060. For this to happen, the price of solar power will need to drop to 0.4 US cents per kilowatt-hour in 2060. Meanwhile, China's technical potential to derive electricity from sunlight will increase to 146.1 PWh by 2060.
While solar technologies have matured, it is still a bit of a challenge to find new conventional energy sources. This is because it is very hard to estimate the quantities of various conventional energy sources. Likewise, solar and wind are decentralized sources, which presents barriers for transmission and siting.
Fortunately, the cost of renewables has fallen significantly since the early 2000s. Utilities across the country have invested heavily in a range of mature technologies. Consequently, the learning curve for these technologies has been extremely steep. In addition, tax credits have played a role in the development of solar markets, especially in California. The 1603 Grant Program, part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, removed the hurdles for using tax incentives.